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arrow Inclusive Wealth Report 2018 (IWR 2018)

arrow Sustainable Development

arrow Urbanization and Regional Development

arrow Next-generation energy

arrow Low-carbon transportation

arrow Eco-friendly infrastructure

arrow Emissions reductions, waste management, and pollution controls

arrow Climate change mitigation and adaptation

arrow Biodiversity Preservation

arrow Agriculture, livestock, forestry, and land use

arrow Green innovation, finance, and technology transfers

arrow Natural disaster preparedness

arrow Aging population

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spacerInclusive Wealth Report 2018 (IWR 2018)
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spacerSustainable Development
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Overview

Sustainable development involves achieving economic growth and social development while preserving the natural systems capable of providing the natural resources and ecosystem services that underlie the economy and society.

Major topics

arrow Urbanization and regional development
arrow Next-generation energy
arrow Low-carbon transportation
arrow Eco-friendly infrastructure
arrow Emissions reductions, waste management, and pollution controls
arrow Climate change mitigation and adaptation
arrow Biodiversity preservation
arrow Agriculture, livestock, forestry, and land use
arrow Green innovation, finance, and technology transfers
arrow Natural disaster preparedness
arrow Environmental and trade regulations
arrow Aging population
arrow Health, education, and social welfare

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spacerUrbanization and Regional Development
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Overview

Urbanization refers to the number of people living in urban areas. It is directly related to regional development in that it involves the proportion of the population that resides in engages in employment available in specific areas (e.g. agriculture in rural areas, banking and technology in urban centers).

Major topics

arrow Industrial hollowing
arrow Population migration
arrow Demographic shifts
arrow Nature and resource conservation

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spacerNext-generation energy
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Overview

The United Nations Development Programme estimates that life-cycle energy processes account for 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, the International Energy Agency estimates that $53 trillion in energy-related investments will be require by 2030 to achieve the 2-degree Celsius temperature target of the Paris Agreement. As major economies such as China, Japan, the U.S., Germany, and others continue to drive research and development into wind, solar, and other energy technologies, developing countries show immense potential to scale up the implementation of decentralized energy generation and storage systems.

Major topics

arrow Renewable energy proliferation
arrow Energy storage technology research and development
arrow Hydrogen fuel cells and other storage technologies
arrow Modern nuclear power facilities

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spacerLow-carbon transportation
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Overview

As global population growth accelerates, demand for clean, reliable, high-speed transportation is also rising in both developed and developing economies. In many areas, automobiles, airplanes, and other fossil fuel-based modes of transportation are the largest sources of climate change-inducing emissions and the human health risks they exacerbate. Greening the transportation system through hybrid and electric vehicles, fuel-cell and other modern energy storage technologies, high-speed rail and other public transportation systems, and similar methods are critical to addressing climate change and sustainable development priorities.

Major topics
arrow Hybrid, electric, and fuel cell personal vehicles
arrow Hybrid, electric, and fuel cell public transportation
arrow High-speed rail
arrow Emission-free buses
arrow Electric charging stations and supporting structures
arrow Driverless and artificial intelligence (AI)-based vehicles

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spacerEco-friendly infrastructure
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Overview

Infrastructure lies at the core of economic and social activities in both emerging and advanced economies. The extent to which key buildings and infrastructures efficiently utilize water, heat, energy, and other resources in a manner that reduces negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystem drastically impact sustainable development.

Major topics
arrow Renewable energy proliferation
arrow Energy storage technology research and development
arrow Hybrid, electric, and fuel cell personal vehicles
arrow Hybrid, electric, and fuel cell public transportation
arrow Low-carbon transportation charging stations and supporting structures
arrow Green building certification schemes

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spacerEmissions reductions, waste management, and pollution controls
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Overview

Greenhouse gas emissions, increasing industrial and consumer waste output, and other forms of unchecked pollution represent environmental externalities that undermine sustainable development agendas. While some of these issues can be addressed by individual governments and industry leaders, a growing number are transnational in nature and thereby require multilateral approaches to curb their negative effects on the environment, the economy, and human well-being.

Major topics

arrow Carbon cap and trade policies
arrow Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies
arrow Renewable energy
arrow Low-carbon transportation
arrow Recycling policy

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spacerClimate change mitigation and adaptation
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Overview

Climate change mitigation involves preventing global atmospheric, oceanic, and surface-level temperature rises by restricting the emissions of carbon dioxide other heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the Earth’s atmosphere. As a corollary pursuit, climate change adaptation involves altering social norms, societal living and business arrangements, and other fundamental aspects of the human experience to contend with the already emerging effects of climate change.

Major topics

arrow Deforestation
arrow Slash-and-burn farming
arrow Rising sea levels
arrow Polar ice and glacial melting

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spacerBiodiversity Preservation
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Overview

Biodiversity refers to the health and variety of living organisms and ecological systems across the planet. Due to the interconnected, often symbiotic nature of the living and non-living components of the ecosystem, biodiversity preservation greatly impacts the ability of the environment to provide the food, air, water, and other ecosystem services critical to human health and economic development.

Major topics

arrow Forest management
arrow Pesticide and chemical-use regulations
arrow Agricultural regulations
arrow Climate-induced species migration
arrow Anthropological climate and weather change
arrow Hunting and fishing restrictions
arrow Fish stocks

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spacerAgriculture, livestock, forestry, and land use
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Overview

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that agriculture, livestock, forestry, and land use practices account for 24% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Modernizing agricultural and ranching practices through the adoption of new technologies and standards stands to substantially curb carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides emissions. At the same time, forest management reforms stand to decrease annual emissions while protecting forests as critical carbon sinks.

Major topics

arrow Sustainable land use
arrow Forest management
arrow Cropland, nutrient, and water management
arrow Irrigation and water storage technologies
arrow Reforestation and afforestation
arrow Agro-forestry

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spacerGreen innovation, finance, and technology transfers
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Overview

Green innovation involves the development of products, processes, structures, and other arrangements that reduce negative environmental impacts. Green finance comprises all forms of environmentally and sustainability-oriented investment or lending. Both of these processes incentivize the research, development, and implementation of green technologies conducive to enhancing sustainability.

Major topics

arrow Green bonds and loans
arrow Green foreign direct investment (FDI)
arrow Green patents
arrow Public research & development (R&D)
arrow Corporate environmental, social, and governance (ESG) indicators

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spacerNatural disaster preparedness
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Overview

As climate change exacerbates polar ice melting, high-altitude wildfires, season-long droughts, and other environmental phenomena, natural disaster preparedness is of growing salience to communities throughout both the developed and developing world. Especially as natural disasters can be costly and difficult to prepare for and prevent, governments and communities share a common interest in developing adequate disaster management plans to avoid damages, costs, injuries, and deaths in the event of increasingly common major disasters.

Major topics

arrow Disaster management plan
arrow Disaster-resilient infrastructure

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spacerAging population
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Overview

The aging population phenomenon depicts substantial increases in the proportion of elderly to younger within a given population. The effects of such trends may hinder economic growth and affect national budgets as the percentage of the population that is capable of producing goods and services, consuming said goods and services, and contributing to tax and welfare systems declines. As demonstrated by recent trends in Japan, Germany, Italy, Canada, China, and India, aging population can be highly nuanced, contextualized, and ever-worsening challenge regardless of development level.

Major topics

arrow Welfare and tax systems
arrow Healthcare systems

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